Popular Nationalism Dalam Kebijakan Luar Negeri Tiongkok Terhadap Jepang Pada Sengketa Kepulauan Senkaku/Diaoyu

Trio Sirmareza


This paper discusses about Popular Nationalism within China’s Foreign Policy towards Japan in the Context of Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands Dispute. Taking Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands’ dispute as the case, it can be conceived that, from two-level game perspective, Chinese government ‘instrumentalizes’ popular nationalism for its foreign policy purposes, i.e. strengthening its international position on the dispute and giving pressure to Japanese government. Practically, while putting pressure to Japan, popular nationalist movement also puts pressure on Chinese government by criticizing the government over its weak foreign policy towards Japan, as well as demanding for Chinese democratization and political change. Chinese government responds this situation by ‘managing’ popular nationalism. The government applies two-sided policy. When popular nationalist movement is favorable for Chinese foreign policy, the government gives popular nationalist a large controlled access to express their anger towards Japan. However, if popular nationalist starts to criticize government, demand for democratization and political change, Chinese government then restricts the movement by using institutional, informational, and ideational resourcesas well as starting to ban any protest and demonstration. This strange policy performed by Chinese government is strategically able to gain domestic support for its foreign policy, and maintain domestic status quo simultaneously.

Full Text:




Holsti, K. J. 1987. Politik Internasional: Kerangka Analisis. Jakarta: Pedoman Ilmu Jaya (Diterjemahkan oleh Etin Sudrajat)

Plano, Jack C. dan Roy Olton.1999. Kamus Hubungan Internasional.Diterjemahkan oleh Wawan Juanda. Jakarta: Penerbit Putra A Bardin

Jackson, Robert dan Georg Sorensen. 2005. Pengantar Studi Hubungan Internasional (Diterjemahkan oleh Dadan Suryadiputra). Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Suryabrata, Sumadi. 2009. Metodologi Penelitian. Jakarta: PT Raja Grafindo Persada

Wuryandari, Ganewati dkk. 2008. Politik Luar Negeri Indonesia di Tengah Pusaran Politik Domestik. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar

E-Book, Artikel, Jurnal dan Laporan Ilmiah

Ali, Ghulam, 2010. The Changing Role of Nationalism within China’s Domestic and Foregin Policy. Istanbul: Bilgesam Publication

Beukel, Erik. 2011 Popular Nationalism in China and the Sino-Japanese Relationship: The Conflict in the East China Sea, an Introductory Study. Copenhagen: DIIS Report 2011:01 Danish Institute for International Studies.

Bonikowski, Bart. ____. Varieties of Popular Nationalism in Modern Democracies: An Inductive Approach to Comparative Research on Political Culture (Cambridge: Wetherhead Center for International Studies, Harvard University, Working Paper No. 13-0001)

Bosold, David & Kai Opperman. 2006. Governments as Gatekeepers: Mediating Domestic and International Discourses in Two-level Games.Tartu: 4th CEEISA Convention

Bransen, Jan. 2001. Philosophy of Verstehen and Eklaren (Smelser, N.J., & Baltes, P.B. (eds.) International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Oxford: Elsevier Science Ltd

Callahan, William A. 2004. National Insecurities: Humiliation, Salvation, and Chinese Nationalism. Durham: Centre for Contemporary Chinese Studies, University of Durham

Darr, Benjamin Joseph. 2011. Nationalism and State Legitimation in Contemporary China. Ph.Ddiss. University of Iowa.

Deans, Phil. 2004. State Patriotism vs Popular Nationalism.IIAS workshop 'Emerging National Self-assertion in EastAsia' held in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2004.

Du, Ruoxi. ____. The Patriotic Education Campaign in China and the Rise of Chinese Nationalism: A Comparison between Official Doctrines and Public Opinion (University of Kansas, FMSO-KU Global Security Studies Internship

Fatton, Lionel. 2013. “The Pandora’s Box of Sovereignty Conflicts: Far-reaching regional consequences of Japan’s nationalization of the Senkakus” (The Asia-Pacific Journal, Vol 11, Issue 4, No. 2, February 4)

Fearon, James D. 1998. Domestic Politics, Foreign Policy, and Theories of International Relations.Chicago: Annual Reviews.

Finnemore, Martha dan Kathryn Sikkink. 2001. Taking Stock: The Constructivist Research Program in International Relations and Comparative Politics (Journal of University of Groningen, 2001)

Fook, Lye Liang & Wu Dan. 2013.Growing Anti-Japanese Nationalism (EAI Background Brief No. 830)

Gad, Viola. _____. (Thesis) Understanding the Identity Shaping the Role of Popular Nationalism in China.____: Lund University

Gries, Peter Hays dan Stanley Rosen, 2004. “State and Society in 21st Century China: Crisis, contention, and legitimation. New York: RoutledgeCurzon

Grimm, Stephen R. _____.Value of Understanding: Philosophical Compass (Draft 8-14-11)

He, Yinan. 2007. History, Chinese Nationalism and the Emerging Sino – Japanese Conflict. (Journal of Contemporary China (2007), Published by Routledge Taylor & Francis Group)

Herranz, Helena Legarda. 2012. Diaoyu or Senkaku? Strained Relations in the East China Sea.Brussels: European Institute for Asian Studies

Holsti, K.J.. 1970. National Role Conceptions in the Study of Foreign Policy (International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 14, No. 3. Published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of The International Studies Association)

Hudson, M. Valerie. 2005. Foreign Policy Analysis: Actor-Specific Theory and the Ground of International Relations. (International Studies Association. Published by Blackwell Publishing)

Jakobson, Linda. 2013. China’s Foreign Policy Dilemma. Sydney: Lowy Institute

Kawulich, Barbara D.____. Data Analysis Techniques in Qualitative Research.Atlanta: State University of Georgia

Lewis-Beck, Michael S. et all. 2004. The Sage Encyclopedia of Social Science London: Sage Publications

Lijun, Yang & Lim Chee Kia. 2010. Three Waves of Nationalism in Contemporary China: Sources, Themes, Presentations and Consequences, Singapore: EAI Working Paper No. 155, National University of Singapore

Putnam, Robert D. 1988. Diplomacy and Domestic Politics: The Logic of Two Level Game. Article published by World Peace Foundation and the Massachussetts Institute of Technology

Renshon, Jonathan dan Stanley A. Renshon.2008.The Theory and Practice of Foreign Policy Decision Making. (International Society of Political Psychology, Published by Blackwell Publishing.Political Psychology, Vol. 29, No. 4, 2008)

Rose, Gideon. 2010. Neoclassical Realism and Theories of Foreign Policy. (Source: World Politics, Vol. 51, No. 1. Published by: Cambridge University Press)

Sandikli, Atilla. 2010. China, A New Superpower?:Dimensions of Power, Energy, and Security. Istanbul: Bilgesam Publications

Thies, Cameron G. 2009. Role Theory and Foreign Policy.Iowa City: University State of Iowa (JSTOR Publications)

Walt, M. Stephen. 1998. International Relations: One World Many Theories. Journal of Foreign Policy No. 110, Special Edition: Frontiers of Knowledge. Dipublikasikan oleh JSTOR.

Wang, Zheng. 2008. National Humiliation, History Education,and the Politics of Historical Memory: Patriotic Education Campaign in China (Journal of International Studies Association)

Whitmeyer, Joseph M. 2002. Elites and Popular Nationalism.(Journal. British Journal of Sociology, Vol. No. 53 Issue No. 3, London School of Economics and Political Science. Published by Routledge Journals, Taylor & Francis Ltd on behalf of the LSE. September 2002.)

Yani, Yanyan Mochamad. 2007. Politik Luar Negeri. (Paper yang disampaikan pada acara Ceramah Sistem Politik Luar Negeri bagi Perwira Siswa Sekolah Staf dan Komando Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Udara (Sesko TNI AU) Angkatan ke-44 TP 2007). Bandung:________.

Yi, Zou. 2012 Provincial Control of Anti-Japanese Protests in the People’s Republic of China: A Case Study in Yunnan Province (Master Thesis. Tokyo University of Foreign Studies)

Yu, Guo. 2010. Dynamics of Popular Nationalism in China’s Japan Policy in the Post Cold War Era. (Ph.D Dissertation: University of Birmingham)

Zemin, Chen. 2005. Nationalism, Internationalism and Chinese Foreign Policy. Shanghai: Journal of Contemporary China, Carfax Publishing Taylor and Francis Group

Zeying, Wu. 2013. The Effects of Patriotic Education on Chinese Youths’ Perceptions of Japan (JSSA Waseda University)

Zhao, Suisheng. 2008. Chinese Pragmatic Nationalism (Article. University of Denver)

Sumber Online

Aji Wicaksono, “Konflik Senkaku/Diaoyu” http://lontar.ui.ac.id/file?file=digital/20318708-S-PDF-Ganesh%20Aji%20Wicaksono.pdf diakses pada 12 Desember 2013

Anthony An, Effects of the 1989 Tiananmen Square Incident on Modern China (April 2011). http://www.m.voices.yahoo.com/effects-1989-tiananmen-square-incident-modern-8312759.html (Diakses pada 18 Maret 2013)

Asep Suryana. Tahapan Penelitian Kualitatif

http://file.upi.edu/Direktori/FIP/JUR._ADMINISTRASI_PENDIDIKAN/197203211999031-ASEP_SURYANA/Copy_%285%29_of_LANGKAH_PENELITIAN_KUALITATIF.pdf (akses pada 15 Mei 2013)

Baogang He, (East Asia Forum), “Chinese nationalism and where it might lead” http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2011/09/21/nationalism-and-where-it-might-lead/

Beijing’s Dilemma in the handling of Anti-Japanese Popular Nationalism http://blogs.nottingham.ac.uk/chinapolicyinstitute/2013/02/28/beijings-dilemma-in-the-handling-of-anti-japanese-popular-nationalism-amid-disputes-with-japan/ (diakses pada 2 April 2013)

CCTV English, “China-Japan ties: China warns Japan of strong response” http://english.cntv.cn/program/newsupdate/20100920/103556.shtml (diakses pada 28 September 2013)

China Media Project, “Anti Japanese Protest in China” http://cmp.hku.hk/2010/10/16/8117/ (diakses pada tanggal 28 September 2013)

Csmonitor, “Beijing now worried anti-Japan protests could backfire” http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Asia-Pacific/2010/1026/Beijing-now-worried-anti-Japan-protests-could-backfire (diakses pada 1 Oktober 2013)

Fox News, China allows rowdy anti-Japanese protests, http://www.foxnews.com/world/2010/10/18/china-allows-rowdy-anti-japanese-protests/

Freedom House (China Media Bulletin), “Weekly Update of press freedom and censorship news related to the People’s Republic of China” (Issue No. 68: September 20, 2012) http://www.freedomhouse.org/sites/default/files/68_092012.pdf

Global Voice Online, “China: Censor Machine Suspended for Anti-Japan Mobilization?” http://globalvoicesonline.org/2012/09/16/china-censor-machine-suspended-for-anti-japan-mobilization/ diakses pada 13 Desember 2013

Joseph Chapel, Denying Genocide: The Evolution of the Denial of the Holocaust and the Nanking Massacre by Joseph Chapel (May 2004) yang dipublikasikan secara online di

http://www.history.ucsb.edu/faculty/marcuse/classes/133p/133p04papers/JChapelNanjing046.htm(diakses pada 6 Mei 2013)

Joyman Lee. Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands Coflict:

http://www.historytoday.com/joyman-lee/senkakudiaoyu-islands-conflict.htm (akses 6 May 2013)

Keith Bradsher, Martin Fackler, and Andrew Jacobs.Anti-Japan Protests Erupt in China Over Disputed Island.

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/20/world/asia/japanese-activists-display-flag-on-disputed-island.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 (diakses pada 6 Mei 2013)

Los Angeles Times, “Thousands in Chinese provinces stage anti-Japan protests”, http://articles.latimes.com/2010/oct/18/world/la-fg-china-japan-protests-20101018 (diakses pada tanggal 28 September 2013)

Pulung Sepyoko, “Perebutan Wilayah Kepulauan Senkaku antara China dan Jepang” http://piko.thefifthleaf.com/AcademicStuff/stuff/Senkaku.docx

Radio Free Asia, “Clampdown on Anti-Japan Protest” http://www.rfa.org/english/news/china/protests-09192012125754.html diakses pada 13 Desember 2013

Reuters, “China breaks up anti-Japan protest” www.reuters.com/article/2010/10/24/us-china-japan-idUSTRE69N0C320101024 (diakses pada 1 Oktober 2013)

Richard McGregor, ‘Beijing in Dilemma over protester’ http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/0c42d3d4-aaf1-11d9-98d7-00000e2511c8.html#axzz2n9cJXNaA (diakses pada 3 Desember 2013)

Sensitive Words: Anti-Japan Protests, http://chinadigitaltimes.net/2012/09/sensitive-words-anti-japan-protests-2/ diakses pada 13 Desember 2013

Steven Jiang (CNN), “Anti-Japan Protest erupt in China over Disputed Islands” http://edition.cnn.com/2012/09/15/world/asia/china-japan-islands/ diakses pada 24 Oktober 2013

Student Demonstrations in Tiananmen Square, The Columbia Encyclopedia. http://www.infoplease.com/spot/tiananmen.html (diakses pada 20 September 2013)

Sui Lee Wee (Reuters), “Anti-japan Protest Erupt in China over Islands Row” http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/09/15/us-china-japan-idUSBRE88E01I20120915 diakses pada 24 Oktober 2013

Tarik Ayasun, “Senkaku/Diaoyu Crisis”, http://www.coastalbreezenews.com/2013/02/23/senkakudiaoyu-crisis/ diakses pada 12 September 2013

The Asahi Shimbun –Asia & Japan Watch- “Noda government to buy Senkaku Islands for 2 billion yen” http://ajw.asahi.com/article/behind_news/politics/AJ201209050013 (diakses pada 2 Oktober 2013)

The Asahi Shimbun, “INSIGHT: Mao references in anti-Japan protests a concern for Chinese authorities” http://ajw.asahi.com/article/asia/china/AJ201209180053 Diakses pada 13 Desember 2013

The Atlantic Online, “How China's Mainstream Media Ignored the Anti-Japanese Riots”, http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2012/09/how-chinas-mainstream-media-ignored-the-anti-japanese-riots/262879/ diakses pada 13 Desember 2013

The Australian News, “Japan to buy Senkaku-Diaoyu Islands in dispute with China” http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/world/japan-to-buy-senkaku-diaoyu-islands-in-dispute-with-china/story-e6frg6so-1226465696624 (diakses pada 3 Oktober 2013)

The Galactic Free Press, “Anti-Japan Protest Flare in China” http://soundofheart.org/galacticfreepress/content/anti-japan-protests-flare-china (diakses pada 2 Oktober 2013)

The Guardian, “China-Japan row over disputed islands threatens to escalate” http://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/sep/18/china-japan-row-dispute-islands (diakses pada 2 Oktober 2013)

Timeline of Senkaku/Diaoyu Island Dispute:

http://www.scmp.com/news/china/article/1039204/timeline-diaoyu-senkaku-islands-dispute (diakses pada 1 April 2013)

Timeline of Senkaku/Diaoyu Island Dispute,

http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/world/timeline-senkakudiaoyu-dispute/article4488198/ (diaksespada 1 April 2013)

Unit dan Tingkat Analisa Politik Internasional.

http://www.portal-hi.net/en/?id=105:unit-dan-tingkat-analisa-politik-internasional (diaksespada 25 Mei 2013)

VOA News. Chinese Hollywood Stokes Anti-Japanese Sentiment. http://www.voanews.com/content/chinese-hollywood-stokes-anti-japanese-sentiment/1612698.html (diaksespada 26 Maret 2013)

Xuefei Chen (People's Daily Online's Stockholm correspondent), “Role of nationalism in Sino-Japanese relations” http://english.people.com.cn/200702/16/eng20070216_350573.html(diaksespada 26 Maret 2013)


  • There are currently no refbacks.