Anak agung Banyu perwita, Ircha Tri Meilisa


The formation of national integrity in the international circuit is essential for a state. National integrity can be seen by fixed territory where a state can exercise their sovereignty in certain area portrayed by a fix border with neighboring countries both in the land and sea. The Philippines has been claimed over its territory based on the Treaty of Paris as the result of the Spanish American war that ceded the sovereignty over the archipelago of the Philippines to the United State. With respect to its history, the Philippines faced the dilemma whether or not it should redefine its baseline law in accordance with the UNLOS provisions. This dilemma then leads to unclear territorial boundary with its neighboring country-- Indonesia.Hence, this article aims to analyze the Philippines-Indonesia maritime border dispute in the Exclusive Economic Zone  from Celebes to Mindanao sea. Using the neoliberalism perspective, the authors analyzed the interest of the Philippines to establish cooperation with Indonesia related to the national territory of each country, each legislation, maritime zones, and exercise of sovereignty over disputes maritime territories. Meanwhile, co-operative maritime diplomacy also used to determine the Philippines action in the form of bilateral cooperation, joint exercise on maritime security and regional cooperation to secure the Philippines and Indonesia maritime areas. On behalf of common interest, both countries succeed in maintaining their relations to achieve mutual goals regardless of boundaries. Furthermore, the foreign policy theory will also  play an intervening role to explain the regulation about the dispute settlement efforts of delimitation boundary between the Philippines and Indonesia.

Full Text:




Buszynski, L., & Roberts, C. B. (2015). The South China Sea Maritime Dispute: Political, Legal and Regional Perspective. New York: Routledge.

Cukwurah, A. O. (1967). The settlement of boundary disputes in international law (1st ed.). Manchester: Manchester U.P.

Ellis, J., Moore, J. N., Nordquist, M. H., & University of Virginia. (2012). Maritime border diplomacy. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

Febrica, S. (2017). Maritime security and Indonesia: Cooperation, interests and strategies. Routledge.

Mahbubani, K., & Sng, J. (2017). The ASEAN miracle: A catalyst for peace. Singapore: The Ridge Books.

Miere, C. L. (2015). Maritime diplomacy in the 21st century. Place of publication not identified: Routledge.

Nye, J. S. (2011). The Future of Power. New York: Public Affairs.

Tayfur, M. F. (2003). Semiperipheral Development and Foreign Policy: The Cases of Greece and Spain. Ashgate Pub Ltd.

Journals, Working Papers, Review, Magazines

Bautista, L. B. (2009). The Philippines Treaty Limits and Territorial Waters Claim In International Law. Social Science Diliman, 5(1-2), 107-127.

Bautista, L. B. (2008). The Historical Context and Legal Basis of the Philippine Treaty Limits. Asian Pacific Law & Policy Journal, 10(1).

De Castro, R. C. (2012). The Aquino Administration’s 2011 Decision to Shift Philippine Defense Policy From Internal Security to Territorial Defense: The Impact of the South China Sea Dispute. The Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, 24(1), 67-87.

Go, R. (2001, November 13). Arroyo, Megawati Sign Deals and Discuss Security. The Straits Times.

Indonesia, Philippines Reach Four-Point Agreement. (2005, June 20). BBC.

Victor, J., & Gonzaga, C. (1997). UNCLOS and the Philippines Territorial Sea: Problems,Perspectives and Options. Ateneo Law Journal, 13(1), 15.

Kreuzer, P. (2016). A Comparison of Malaysian and Philippine Responses to China in the South China Sea. The Chinese Journal of International Politics, 9(3), 239-276. doi:10.1093/cjip/pow008

Pattugalan, G. R. (1999). Philippine Foreign Policy Under the Ramos Administration. Philippine Journal of Third World Studies, 14(3), 138.

Patuzi, D. (2015). The Concept of the Exclusive Economic Zone. Academic Journal of Business, Administration, Law and Social Sciences, 1(1), 150.

Purwanto, H., & Mangku, D. G. (2016). Legal Instrument of the Republic of Indonesia on Border Management Using the Perspective of Archipelagic State. International Journal of Business, Economics and Law, 11(4).

Pattiradjawane, R. L., & Soebagjo, N. (2016). Establishing Maritime Diplomacy in Southeast Asia: Balancing ASEAN Regional Interest in the Rise of Competing Great Power Rivalry. Global Journal of Human Social Science, 16(3).

Tayfur, M. F. (1994). Main Approaches to the Study of Foreign Policy. METU Studies in Development, 21(1), 113-141.

Turcsányi, R. Q. (2017). The Puzzle of Chinese Assertiveness. Global Power Shift, 1-29. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-67648-7_1

Official Statements/Documents

Arroyo, G. M. (2004). A Compilation of selected presidential speeches of Her Excellency President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. Office of the Press Secretary, Bureau of Communications Services.

Keynote Speech by H.E. Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono President Republic of Indonesia At the ASEAN Forum: Rethinking ASEAN Towards the ASEAN Community 2015 Jakarta, 7 August 2007. (2007). Retrieved from ASEAN website:

Pengantar Soal Perkembangan Politik Luar Negeri Terutama Kerjasama Negara-Negara ASEAN. (n.d.). Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan Republik Indonesia.

Philippines. Cabinet Committee on Maritime and Ocean Affairs. (1994). National marine policy. Manila: Foreign Service Institute.

Philippines. President (1986-1992 : Aquino). (1989). The state of the nation address: President Corazon C. Aquino : Congress of the Philippines opening of the third regular session, 24 July 1989. Retrieved from Office of the Press Secretary, Philippine Information Agency website:

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982.

Online Sources/Web Sources

A Principled Philippine Foreign Policy Under the Aquino Administration. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Anwar, D. F. (2014, February 4). Indonesia’s foreign relations: policy shaped by the ideal of ‘dynamic equilibrium’. Retrieved from

Asean nations fail to reach agreement on South China Sea. (2012, July 13). Retrieved from

Breadsher, K. (2014, February 4). Philippine Leader Sounds Alarm to China. Retrieved from

Briefer: Diplomatic relations between the Philippines and Indonesia | GOVPH. (n.d.). Retrieved from

The Philippines’ Relationship With ASEAN. (2017, March 22). Retrieved from

The World Bank. (n.d.). Philippines Coastal and Marine Resources: An Introduction. Retrieved from

UNCLOS. (1982, December 10). Law of the Sea. Retrieved from

Philippines and Indonesia Sign Agreement on EEZ Boundary. (2014). Retrieved from

Fidel V. Ramos, Sixth State of the Nation Address. (1997, July 28). Retrieved from

Philippines, Indonesia Hold Successful Bilateral Talks. (n.d.). Retrieved from

The Philippines Indonesia to Hold 6th on Joint Commission on Bilateral Relations. (n.d.). Retrieved from


Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security, issuing body. (2009). Regional plan of action: Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security (CTI-CFF).

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2014). The state of world fisheries and aquaculture: 2004. Rome: Author.

National Coral Triangle Initiative (Philippines). Coordinating Committee. (2013). State of the Coral Triangle report, Philippines, 2012. Retrieved from

Pusat Data, Statistik, dan Informasi Kementrian Kelautan dan Perikanan, Informasi Kelautan dan Perikanan. (2016). Retrieved from Kementrian Kelautan dan Perikanan website:


  • There are currently no refbacks.